Show Notes, 116. Nomar Slevik, September 17th
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by Andy Fleming
One of the astronomical objects that will be visible in Earthly skies at some point in the future will be a supernova.
It’s a stellar explosion that is extremely luminous and it causes a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span.
Several large stars within the Milky Way have been suggested as possible supernovae within the next million years. These include Eta Carinae, VY Canis Majoris, Betelgeuse, Antares, and Spica.
The explosion expels much or all of a star’s material at a velocity of up to 30,000 kms or 10% of the speed of light, driving a shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium. This shock wave sweeps up an expanding shell of gas and dust called a supernova remnant.
Nova means “new” in Latin, referring to what appears to be a very bright new star shining in the heavens; the prefix “super-” distinguishes supernovae from ordinary novae, which also involve a star increasing in brightness, though to a lesser extent and through a different mechanism. The word supernova was coined by Swiss astrophysicist and astronomer Fritz Zwicky in 1926.
Several types of supernovae exist. A Types II or core collapse supernova can be triggered by either turning off or suddenly turning on the production of energy through nuclear fusion. After the core of an aging massive star ceases generating energy from nuclear fusion, it may undergo sudden gravitational collapse and explode creating a neutron star or black hole, releasing gravitational potential energy that heats and expels the star’s outer layers.
Alternatively a white dwarf star may accumulate sufficient material from a stellar companion (either through accretion or via a merger) to raise its core temperature enough to ignite carbon fusion, at which point it detonates at this so-called Chandrasekhar limit, which is roughly 1.4 times the mass of our Sun. This is a Type Ia supernova, and will one day be the fate of the white dwarf star Sirius B, or the Pup. It is currently accreting material from Sirius A which at only 8.6 light years away is the brightest star in our night time sky.
Although no supernova has been observed in the Milky Way since 1604, supernovae remnants indicate on average the event occurs about once every 50 years. They play a significant role in enriching the interstellar medium with higher mass elements.
One such supernovae was observed by Chinese astronomers in 1054AD. Today with dark skies and a telescope it can be seen as the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant otherwise known as Messier Object 1, NGC 1952, or Taurus A. At its centre lies a rapidly rotating neutron star, a supernova remnant called a pulsar.
The expanding shock waves from supernova explosions can trigger the formation of new stars.
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1941 Cape Girardeau, Missouri UFO Crash
In 1941, 7 years before the Roswell, New Mexico Crash in 1947, a similar UFO incident happened in the woods outside of Cape Girardeau, Missouri.
A story told by a woman named Charlette Mann reveals a long family secret of an alien encounter and mysterious UFO crash. The story was about Charlette’s grandfather Reverend William Huffman. Huffman was the pastor of the Red Star Baptist Church.
According to her grandmother’s deathbed confession, her grandfather was summoned around 9-10 PM to pray over victims of a wreckage in the woods outside town. Reverend Huffman is taken on a 10-15 mile trip and arrived at the scene which appeared to be a plane crash site already surrounded by policemen, fire department personnel, FBI agents, photographers and Military.
He was shocked to see not an airplane crash, but a scene of a strange disc-shaped object with strange markings that looked like hieroglyphic-like writings that he could not understand.
Even stranger were the bodies of small humanoids of very large heads and large black shiny eyes. Nearly visible ears and mouths and totally without hair. Reverend Huffman was soon asked to come and pray over the dead bodies at the scene. After performing his Christian duties, a military personnel at the scene made Huffman swore into secrecy whatever he found out during that night. But Huffman could not hide the strange and baffling scene that he saw from his wife. The secret was kept by the family until Charlette’s grandmother told the story to her in 1984 as she was dying of cancer.
The seemingly Sci-Fi script UFO case was brought to public by Leo Stringfield in his book, “UFO Crash/Retrievals: The Inner Sanctum” with all the details of the Crash that Charlette gave him. Charlette believed that the story was authentic but still more details would be needed to put the UFO crash of Cape Girardeau in the authentic category.
Will Our Fate Be That of the Dinosaurs?
February 20, 2014by Andy Fleming
In the 1970s Walter Alvarez, a professor in the Earth and Planetary Science department at the University of California, Berkeley started to form a hypothesis connecting an asteroid impact, the presence of its global Iridium layer in the rock strata, and the loss of the dinosaurs in what has become known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (or K-T) mass extinction event.
Verified by geological dating, the location of the asteroid’s impact crater was eventually discovered at Chicxulub, in the Yucatán Peninsula. The now confirmed scientific theory made truly shocking reading. It stated that 66 million years ago, our planet was hit by a space rock 10kms in diameter traveling at 40,000kph. Taking two seconds to traverse the atmosphere it buried itself kilometres deep in the Earth’s crust, with resultant molten ejecta traversing the entire globe. Worldwide cataclysmic fires created dense and choking dust and smoke that blocked out most sunlight for years. Temperatures plummeted, and 75% of all species on Earth, including dinosaurs became extinct. In this epic catastrophe, small dinosaurs capable of flight survived to become modern day birds. Tiny underground shrew-like animals that lived on roots also survived.
In terms of longevity of their reign of over 150 million years, the dinosaurs are to this day the most successful creatures ever to walk the Earth. Their sudden demise however, ushered in the age of the mammals that would one day evolve into us. Without the Chicxulub impact, debatably the most intelligent species ever seen on Earth i.e. ‘us’ simply wouldn’t exist. Mammals truly did inherit the Earth.
Well known in the UFO community as an author and as the director of NICAP, Major Donald Keyhoe was a Marine pilot and established author well before the flying saucer craze of the late 1940s. He authored several books on unidentified flying objects, including the classic Flying Saucers Are Real. Although his experience in the aviation field and Pentagon contacts gave him a certain amount of authority, his detractors pointed to some of his other writings to discredit his work.
by Michael Lauck
Faith is an integral part of daily life. Although the word is commonly used in regards to religion, faith is not exclusively connected to one’s religious belief. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary website does offer both “belief in the existence of God” and “a system of religious beliefs” as definitions for faith but the very first definition is merely “strong belief or trust in someone or something.” When one uses this definition, it is easy to find examples of faith in daily life. Most people, for example, start their day thanks to the faith they have placed in an alarm clock.
Why would an extraterrestrial civilization come here of all places in the universe? This is a commonly asked question by the UFO skeptics and debunkers. Personally, I think this is a rather unimportant question. I really honestly do not expect to understand the motivations of an alien species. Some may consider this taking the easy way out, but our own history is full of examples where cultures misunderstand each other’s motivations and desires. If American Indians did not understand what drove the Europeans, how are we to understand the thought process of an entirely different life form? As of this week, though, the question can be laid to rest.
One of the common arguments used by skeptics and debunkers is that UFO witnesses are actually inserting pop culture imagery into their memories or interpretations of an event. For example, they will state that abductees see “Greys” because the Grey alien archetype was prominently featured on book covers and in the movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Of course this argument completely (and conveniently) overlooks the fact that the creatures depicted on these book covers and in the film were based on descriptions of experiencers who had not seen the movie or books. Nonetheless, the argument is still put forth confidently and is often not even questioned. How can this assertion be derailed?